BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES: ZOOLOGY (Syllabus) Marks: 50
Discipline Specific Course:
Animal Diversity – Invertebrates
Brief history of Invertebrates: – Kingdom Animalia; Brief history of Invertebrates
Protozoa: – General characters – Classification up to classes with examples; Type study – Elphidium;
Life cycle of Plasmodium; Locomotion, Reproduction and Diseases
Porifera: – General characters- Classification of Porifera up to classes with examples; Type study –
Sycon;-Canal system in sponges and Spicules.
Cnidaria :- General characters – Classification of Cnidaria up to classes with examples; Type study –
Obelia ; Polymorphism in hydrozoa; Corals and coral reef formation
Platyhelminthes: – General characters;-Classification of Platyhelminthes up to classes with examples;
Type study- Schistosoma.
Nemathelminthes: – General characters; Classification of Nemathelminthes up to classes with
examples; -Type study – Dracunculus; – Parasitic Adaptations in Helminthes
Annelida: – General characters; Classification of Annelida up to classes with examples; Type study –
Hirudinaria granulosa.; Evolutionary significance of Coelome and Coelomoducts and
Arthropoda:- General characters; Classification of Arthropoda up to classes with examples;Type
study – Prawn; Mouth parts of Insects; Insect metamorphosis; Peripatus – Structure and
Mollusca:- General characters; Classification of Mollusca up to classes with examples;Type study –
Pila ; Pearl formation ; Torsion and detorsion in gastropods
Echinodermata:- General characters; Classification of Echinodermata up to classes with examples;
Water vascular system in star fish; – Echinoderm larvae and their significance
Hemichordata:- General characters; Classification of Hemichordata up to classes with examples;
Balanoglossus – Structure and affinities
Ecology, Zoogeography and Animal Behavior
Ecology – I : – Ecosystem structure and functions; Types of Ecosystems –Aquatic and Terrestrial.;
Biogeochemical cycles – Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus and Water.; Energy flow in ecosystem.; Food
chain, food web and ecological pyramids.; Animal Associations – Mutualism, commensalism,
parasitism, competition, predation.
Ecology – II : – Concept of Species, Population dynamics and Growth curves.; Community Structure and
dynamics and Ecological Succession.; Ecological Adaptations. ; Environmental Pollution – Sources,
Effect and Control measures of Air, Water, Soil and Noise Pollution.; Wildlife conservation – National
parks and Sanctuaries of India, Endangered species.; Biodiversity and hotspots of Biodiversity in India.
Zoogeography: – Zoogeographical regions – Palaearctic, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Australian and
Ethiopian regions – their Climatic and faunal peculiarities; Wallace line, Discontinuous distribution;
Animal Behaviour: – Types of Behaviour- Innate and Acquired, Instinctive and Motivated behavior; Taxes,
Reflexes, Tropisms; Physiology and phylogeny of learning, trial and error learning, Imprinting,
habituation, Classical conditioning, Instrumental conditioning; – Social behavior, Communication,
Pheromones; – Biological rhythms, Biological clocks, Circadian rhythms
Animal Diversity- Vertebrates and Developmental Biology
Urochordata, Cephalochordata, Cyclostomata: – Salient features of Urochordata; – Retrogressive
metamorphosis and its significance in Urochordata; – Salient features and affinities of Cephalochordata;
– General characters of Cyclostomata; – Comparison of the Petromyzon and Myxine; – General
characters and classification of Chordata upto orders with examples.
Pisces: – General characters of Fishes; – Classification of fishes up to order level with examples; – Scoliodon –
Respiratory, Circulatory and Nervous system.; – Types of Scales and types of Fins
Amphibia: – General characters of Amphibians; – Classification of Amphibians up to orders with examples.; – .
Rana tigrina – Respiratory, Circulatory and Nervous system. ; Parental care in amphibian; neoteny and
Reptilia: – General characters of Reptilia; – Classification of Reptilia up to orders with examples; Calotes –
Respiratory system, Circulatory and Nervous system.; Temporal fosse in reptiles and its evolutionary
importance; – Distinguished characters of Poisonous and Non poisonous snakes.; – Rhynchocephalia.
Aves: – General characters of Aves ; – Classification of Aves up to orders with examples.;-Columba livia -,
Digestive system, Circulatory systems, Respiratory system and Nervous system.; Migration in Birds;
Flight adaptation in Birds
Mammalia: – General characters of Mammalia; – Classification of Mammalia up to orders with examples; –
Rabbit –Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory and Nervous system. ; – Dentition in mammals.; Aquatic
adaptations in Mammals.
Developmental Biology and Embryology: – Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis); – Fertilization ;
– Types of eggs; – Types of cleavages ; – Development of Frog up to formation of primary germ
layers; – Formation of Foetal membrane in chick embryo and their functions; – Types and functions of
Placenta in mammals – Regeneration in Turbellaria and Lizards
Cell Biology, Genetics & Evolution
Cell Biology : – Cell theory, Differences of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.; – Ultrastructure of animal cell; –
Structure and functions of plasma membrane proteins.; Structure and functions of cell organelles –
Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, centrosomes, Mitochondria and Nucleus;
– Chromosomes – Structure, types, giant chromosomes; – Cell Division – Mitosis, Meiosis.; – Cell cycle
and its regulation.
Molecular Biology: – DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) – Structure.; – RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid) – Structure,
types.; – DNA Replication .; – Protein Synthesis – Transcription and Translation; – Gene Expression –
Genetic Code; operon concept ; Molecular Biology Techniques- Polymerase Chain Reaction,
Genetics: – Mendals laws of Inheritance and Non-Medelian Inheritance; – Linkage and Crossing over.; – Sex
determination and sex-linked inheritance.; – Chromosomal Mutations- Deletion, Duplication, Inversion,
Translocation, Aneuploidy and Polyploidy. – Gene mutations- Induced versus Spontaneous mutations. –
Inborn errors of metabolism. – One gene one enzyme, one gene one polypeptide theory.
Evolution: – Theories of evolution – Lamarckism and Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism,
Modern synthetic theory. – Evidences of Evolution and Hardy Weinberg Law.- Forces of Evolution –
mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection. – Isolation – Pre-mating and post mating
isolating mechanisms – Speciation: Methods of speciation – Allopatric and sympatric – Causes and Role
of Physiology and Biochemistry.
Physiology and Biochemistry
Digestion: – Digestion definition and extra and intracellular digestion. – Digestion of Carbohydrates, Proteins,
Lipids and Cellulose. – Absorption and Assimilation of digested food; role of Gastrointestinal
hormones in digestion
Respiration: Definition of Respiration and Respiratory mechanisms – External, Internal and cellular. –
Respiratory Pigments; Transport of oxygen, Oxygen dissociation curves. Bohr‘s effect. – Transport of
CO2 – Chloride shift; Regulation of respiration – nervous and chemical
Circulation: – Types of circulation – Open and Closed circulation. – Structure of Mammalian Heart, Types of
hearts – Neurogenic and Myogenic; Heart function – Conduction and regulation of heart beat.; –
Regulation of Heart rate – Tachycardia and Bradycardia; Blood Clotting mechanism
Excretion: – Classification of Animals on the basis of excretory products- Ammonotelic, Uricotelic, Ureotelic;
Structure and function of Nephron. ; – Urine formation, Counter current mechanism.
Muscle Contraction: – Types of Muscles; – Ultra structure of skeletal muscle fibre; – Sliding Filament theory,
muscle contraction mechanism and energetics.
Nerve Impulse: – Structure of Neuron; – Nerve impulse – Resting potential and Action potential and
Conduction of Nerve impulse ; – Synapse, types of synapses and Synaptic transmission.
Endocrine System: – Endocrine glands – Structure, secretions and functions of Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid,
Adrenal glands and Pancreas ; – Hormone action and concept of Secondary messengers ; – Male and Female
Hormones, Hormonal control of Menstrual cycle in humans.
Physiology and Biochemistry
Homeostasis and Enzymes: – Concept of Homeostasis.; – Mechanism of Homeostasis.; – Osmoregulation –
Water and ionic regulation by freshwater, brackish water and marine animals; – Enzymes: Definition,
Classification, Inhibition and Regulation
Biomolecules and Metabolism: – Carbohydrates: Classification and function of Carbohydrates; –
Carbohydrate metabolism – Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, , Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. ;
Proteins: Classification of proteins based on functions and Chemical nature; – Protein Metabolism –
Transamination, Deamination and Urea Cycle; – Lipids: Classification of Lipids; Lipid Metabolism – Fatty
acid synthesis and Fatty acid oxidation.
Immunology and Animal Biotechnology
Immunology – Basic concepts; antigens and antibodies: – Basic concepts of immunology. – Cells of immune
system; – Primary and secondary Organs of immune system; – Types of Immunity – Innate and acquired; – Basic
properties of antigens; – Structure, function and types of an antibody. -B and T cell epitopes, haptens,
adjuvants.- Antigen-antibody reactions, – T-Cell and B-Cell activation; onoclonal antibodies and their
Working of an Immune system; Immune system in health and disease: – Structure and functions of major
histocompatibility complex. -Basic properties and functions of Cytokines, Interferons and complement proteins.
– Humoral and Cell mediated immunity.- Types of hyper sensitivity. – Concepts of autoimmunity and
immunodeficiency. – Introduction to Vaccines and types of Vaccines
Animal Biotechnology and Genetically modified organisms: – Concept and Scope of Animal
Biotechnology.- Cloning vectors – Plasmids, Cosmids, Lambda bacteriophage, YAC – Cloning- Cloning
methods (Cell, Animal and Gene cloning) .Animal Cell culture – Equipment and materials for animal cell
culture; applications of cell culture techniques; – Recombinant DNA technology and its applications; –
Transgenesis – Methods of Transgenesis.- Production of Transgenic animals and Application of Transgenic
animals in Biotechnology. – Stem cells –types and their applications
Brief introduction of the aquatic biomes
Freshwater ecosystem (lakes, wetlands, streams and rivers),
Estuaries, intertidal zones,
Oceanic pelagic zone, marine benthic zone.
Fresh Water Biology and Marine Biology
Lakes: Origin and classification of lakes
Lake as an Ecosystem, Lake morphometry
Physico-chemical Characteristics of fresh water bodies: Light, Temperature, Thermal stratification,
Dissolved Solids, Carbonate, Bicarbonates, Phosphates and Nitrates, Turbidity: dissolved gases
(Oxygen, Carbon dioxide).
Nutrient Cycles and Lakes- Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorous.
Streams: Different stages of stream development, Physico-chemical environment, adaptation of hillstream fishes.
Salinity and density of sea water; Continental shelf; Adaptation of deep sea organisms; Sea weeds.
Management of Aquatic Resources
Aquatic pollution – Causes of pollution: Agricultural, Industrial, Sewage, Thermal and Oil spills,
Management and conservation
Water pollution acts Of India
Sewage treatment and water quality assessment – BOD and COD.
Public Health and Hygiene
Unit-I Nutrition, Environment and Health
Classification of foods – Carbohydrate s, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals
Balanced diet and malnutrition.
Nutritional deficiencies and disorders- Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals.
Environment and health Impact assessment: concept, steps and applications.
Occupational, Industrial, agricultural and urban Health-Exposure at work place, urban areas,
industrial workers, farmers and agricultural labourers, Health workers and health disorders and
Environmental pollution and associated Health hazards
UNIT-II Communicable and Non-Communicable diseases
Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Communicable diseases – Malaria,
Filaria, Measles, Polio, Chicken pox, Rabies, Plague, Leprosy, Tuberculosis and AIDS.
Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Non-Communicable diseases –
Hypertension, Coronary Heart diseases, Stroke, Diabetes, Obesity and Mental ill-health.
Water borne diseases: Cholera, E. coli , Hepatitis and Polio; Air borne diseases: Chickenpox,
Influenza, Measles and Tuberculosis
UNIT -III Health Education in India
Health care legislation in India — termination of pregnancy act, Maternity benefit act, Transplantation
of human organs act, Child Labour act, Biomedical waste act, ESI act.
WHO Programmes — Government and Voluntary Organizations and their health services
First Aid and Health awareness, personal health care record maintenance.
Man and Medicine: Towards Health for all
Dawn of Scientific Medicine
Theory of Diseases.
Definition of health; concepts of health – Biomedical, Ecological, Psychological and Holistic
Dimensions of Health — Physical, Mental, Social Spiritual, Emotional and Vocational
Determinants of health – Biological, Behavioral, Environmental, Socio-economic and Health
Concept of Health and Diseases
Concept of well being — Standard Of Living, Level Of Living & Quality Of Life
Ecology of health & right to health responsibility for health
Modes of Interventions: Health Promotion, Specific Protection, Early Diagnosis and Treatment,
Disability Limitations and Rehabilitations.
Health Programmes in India — NVBDCP, NLEP, NTP, National AIDS Control Programme,