TS Ed CET 2020
Part – C
PHYSICAL SCIENCES Physics Syllabus ( 50 Marks)
1. Vector Analysis : Scalar and vector fields, gradient of a scalar field and its physical
significance. Divergence and curl of a vector field and related problems. Vector integration,
line, surface and volume integrals. Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems- simple applications.
2. Mechanics of Particles : Laws of motion, motion of variable mass system, motion of a
rocket, multi-stage rocket, conservation of energy and momentum. Collisions in two and three
dimensions, concept of impact parameter, scattering cross-section,
3. Mechanics of rigid bodies: Definition of Rigid body, rotational kinematic relations,
equation of motion for a rotating body, angular momentum and inertial tensor. Euler‘s
equation, precession of a top, Gyroscope,
4. Central forces: Central forces – definition and examples, conservative nature of central
forces, conservative force as a negative gradient of potential energy, equation of motion under
a central force, gravitational potential and gravitational field, motion under inverse square law,
derivation of Kepler‘s laws, Coriolis force and its expressions.
5. Special theory of relativity: Galilean relativity, absolute frames, Michelson-Morley
experiment, Postulates of special theory of relativity. Lorentz transformation, time dilation,
length contraction, addition of velocities, mass-energy relation. Concept of four vector
6. Fundamentals of vibrations: Simple harmonic oscillator, and solution of the differential
equation– Physical characteristics of SHM, torsion pendulum, – measurements of rigidity
modulus , compound pendulum, measurement of ‗g‘, combination of two mutually
perpendicular simple harmonic vibrations of same frequency and different frequencies,
7. Damped and forced oscillations: Damped harmonic oscillator, solution of the differential
equation of damped oscillator. Energy considerations, comparison with undamped harmonic
oscillator, logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, quality factor, differential equation of forced
oscillator and its solution, amplitude resonance, velocity resonance. Coupled Oscillators.
8. Vibrating Strings: Transverse wave propagation along a stretched string, general solution of
wave equation and its significance, modes of vibration of stretched string clamped at ends,
overtones, energy transport, transverse impedance
9. Vibrations of bars: Longitudinal vibrations in bars- wave equation and its general solution.
Special cases (i) bar fixed at both ends ii) bar fixed at the midpoint iii) bar free at both ends iv)
bar fixed at one end. Transverse vibrations in a bar- wave equation and its general solution.
Boundary conditions, clamped free bar, free-free bar, bar supported at both ends, Tuning fork.
10. Kinetic theory of gases: Introduction – Deduction of Maxwell‘s law of distribution of
molecular speeds, Transport Phenomena – Viscosity of gases – thermal conductivity –
diffusion of gases.
11. Thermodynamics: Basics of thermodynamics-Kelvin‘s and Claussius statements –
Thermodynamic scale of temperature – Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in
reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and disorder – Entropy of universe –
Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-change of entropy
when ice changes into steam.
12. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations: Thermodynamic potentials –
Derivation of Maxwell‘s thermodynamic relations – Clausius-Clayperon‘s equation –
Derivation for ratio of specific heats – Derivation for difference of two specific heats for
perfect gas. Joule Kelvin effect – expression for Joule Kelvin coefficient for perfect and
13. Low temperature Physics: Joule Kelvin effect – liquefaction of gas using porous plug
experiment. Joule expansion – Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion –
Expression for Joule Thomson cooling – Liquefaction of helium, Kapitza‘s method – Adiabatic
demagnetization – Production of low temperatures – Principle of refrigeration, vapour
14. Quantum theory of radiation: Black body-Ferry‘s black body – distribution of energy in the
spectrum of Black body – Wein‘s displacement law, Wein‘s law, Rayleigh-Jean‘s law –
Quantum theory of radiation – Planck‘s law – deduction of Wein‘s distribution law, RayleighJeans law, Stefan‘s law from Planck‘s law.
Measurement of radiation using pyrometers – Disappearing filament optical pyrometer –
experimental determination – Angstrom pyroheliometer – determination of solar constant,
effective temperature of sun.
15. Statistical Mechanics: Introduction, postulates of statistical mechanics. Phase space, concept
of ensembles and some known ensembles ,classical and quantum statistics and their
differences, concept of probability, Maxwell-Boltzmann‘s distribution law -Molecular energies
in an ideal gas- Maxwell-Boltzmann‘s velocity distribution law, Bose-Einstein Distribution
law, Fermi-Dirac Distribution law, comparison of three distribution laws, Application of B-E
distribution to Photons-planks radiation formula, Application of Fermi-Dirac statistics to white
dwarfs and Neutron stars.
16. Interference: Principle of superposition – coherence – temporal coherence and spatial
coherence – conditions for Interference of light
Interference by division of wave front: Fresnel‘s biprism – determination of wave length of
light. Determination of thickness of a transparent material using Biprism – change of phase on
reflection – Lloyd‘s mirror experiment.
Interference by division of amplitude: Oblique incidence of a plane wave on a thin film due
to reflected and transmitted light (Cosine law) – Colours of thin films – Non reflecting films–
interference by a plane parallel film illuminated by a point source – Interference by a film with
two non-parallel reflecting surfaces (Wedge shaped film) – Determination of diameter of wire-
Newton‘s rings in reflected light with and without contact between lens and glass plate,
Newton‘s rings in transmitted light (Haidinger Fringes) – Determination of wave length of
monochromatic light – Michelson Interferometer – types of fringes – Determination of
wavelength of monochromatic light, Difference in wavelength of sodium D1,D2 lines and
thickness of a thin transparent plate.
17. Diffraction: Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction
Fraunhoffer diffraction:- Diffraction due to single slit and circular aperture – Limit of
resolution – Fraunhoffer diffraction due to double slit – Fraunhoffer diffraction pattern with N
slits (diffraction grating)
Resolving Power of grating – Determination of wave length of light in normal and oblique
incidence methods using diffraction grating.
Fresnel diffraction-Fresnel‘s half period zones – area of the half period zones –zone plate –
Comparison of zone plate with convex lens – Phase reversal zone plate – diffraction at a
straight edge – difference between interference and diffraction.
18. Polarization: Polarized light : Methods of Polarization, Polarization by reflection, refraction,
Double refraction, selective absorption , scattering of light – Brewster‘s law – Malus law –
Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer – Refraction of plane wave incident on negative and
positive crystals (Huygen‘s explanation) – Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate – Babinet‘s
compensator – Optical activity, analysis of light by Laurent‘s half shade polarimeter.
19. Aberrations and Fiber Optics: Introduction – Monochromatic aberrations, spherical
aberration, methods of minimizing spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and curvature of
field, distortion. Chromatic aberration – the achromatic doublet – Removal of chromatic
aberration of a separated doublet.
Fiber Optics : Introduction – Optical fibers –Principles of fiber communication – Step and
graded index fibers – Rays and modes in an optical fiber – Fiber material – Types of optical
fibers and advantages of fiber communication,
20. Electrostatics: Electric Field:- Concept of electric field lines and electric flux, Gauss‘s law
(Integral and differential forms), application to linear, plane and spherical charge
distributions. Conservative nature of electric field E, irrotational field. Electric Potential:-
Concept of electric potential, relation between electric potential and electric field, potential
energy of a system of charges. Energy density in an electric field. Calculation of potential
from electric field for a spherical charge distribution.
21. Magnetostatics :Concept of magnetic field B and magnetic flux, Biot-Savart‘s law, B due to a
straight current carrying conductor. Force on a point charge in a magnetic field. Properties of
B, curl and divergence of B, solenoidal field. Integral form of Ampere‘s law, applications of
Ampere‘s law: field due to straight, circular and solenoidal currents. Energy stored in
magnetic field. Magnetic energy in terms of current and inductance. Magnetic force between
two current carrying conductors. Magnetic field intensity. Ballistic Galvanometer:- Torque on
a current loop in a uniform magnetic field, working principle of B.G., current and charge
sensitivity, electromagnetic damping, critical damping resistance.
22. Electromagnetic Induction: Faraday‘s laws of induction (differential and integral form),
Lenz‘s law, self and mutual Induction. Continuity equation, modification of Ampere‘s law,
displacement current, Maxwell equations.
23. Electromagnetic waves: Maxwell‘s equations in vacuum and dielectric medium, boundary
conditions, plane wave equation: transverse nature of EM waves, velocity of light in vacuum
and in medium, polarization, reflection and transmission. Polarization of EM waves,
Brewster‘s angle, description of linear, circular and elliptical polarization.
24. Atomic Spectra and Models Inadequacy of classical physics: Brief Review of Black body
Radiation , Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, dual nature of radiation, wave nature of
particles. Atomic spectra, Line spectra of hydrogen atom, Ritz Rydberg combination
principle. Alpha Particle Scattering, Rutherford Scattering Formula, Rutherford Model of
atom and its limitations, Bohr‘s model of H atom, explanation of atomic spectra, correction
for finite mass of the nucleus, Bohr correspondence principle, limitations of Bohr model,
discrete energy exchange by atom, Frank Hertz Expt. Sommerfeld’s Modification of Bohr‘s
Wave Particle Duality de Broglie hypothesis, Experimental confirmation of matter wave,
Davisson Germer Experiment, velocity of de Broglie wave, wave particle duality,
Complementarity. Superposition of two waves, phase velocity and group velocity, wave
packets ,Gaussian Wave Packet , spatial distribution of wave packet, Localization of wave
packet in time. Time development of a wave Packet; Wave Particle Duality,
Complementarity. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Illustration of the Principle through
thought Experiments of Gamma ray microscope and electron diffraction through a slit. Time
independent and time dependent Schrodinger wave equation. Estimation of ground state
energy of harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom, non-existence of electron in the nucleus.
Uncertainty and Complementarities.
Nuclear Physics Size and structure of atomic nucleus and its relation with atomic weight;
Impossibility of an electron being in the nucleus as a consequence of the uncertainty principle.
Nature of nuclear force, NZ graph, Liquid Drop model: semi-empirical mass formula and
binding energy, Nuclear Shell Model and magic numbers.
Radioactivity: stability of the nucleus; Law of radioactive decay; Mean life and half-life; Alpha
decay; Beta decay- energy released, spectrum and Pauli’s prediction of neutrino; Gamma ray
emission, energy-momentum conservation: electron-positron pair creation by gamma photons
in the vicinity of a nucleus. Fission and fusion- mass deficit, relativity and generation of
energy; Fission – nature of fragments and emission of neutrons. Nuclear reactor: slow neutrons
interacting with Uranium 235; Fusion and thermonuclear reactions driving stellar energy (brief
qualitative discussions), Classification of Elementary Particles
25. Basic Electronics: Classification of solids in terms of forbidden energy gap. Intrinsic and
extrinsic semiconductors, Fermi level, continuity equation – p-n junction diode, half wave
and full wave rectifiers and filters, ripple factor, Characteristics of Zener diode and its
application as voltage regulator. – p n p and n p n transistors, current components in
transistors, CB,CE and CC configurations – concept of transistor biasing, operating point,
fixed bias and self-bias transistor as an amplifier — concept of negative feedback and
Positive feedback – Barkhausen criterion.
2 6 . D i g i t a l P r i n c i p l e s: Binary number system, converting Binary to Decimal and vice versa.
Binary addition and subtraction (1s‘ and 2’s complement methods). Hexadecimal number
system. Conversion from Binary to Hexadecimal – vice versa and Decimal to Hexadecimal vice
versa. Logic gates: OR, AND, NOT gates, truth tables, NAND, NOR as universal gates,
Exclusive – OR gate, De Morgan’s Laws – statement and proof, Half and Full adders.
27. Quantum Mechanics: de Broglie’s hypothesis — wavelength of matter waves, properties of
matter waves, Properties of matter waves Phase and group velocities. Davisson and Germer
experiment. Double slit experiment. Standing de Brogile waves of electron in Bohr orbits.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle for position and momentum (x and px), Energy and time (E
and t). Gamma ray microscope. Diffraction by a single slit. Position of electron in a Bohr orbit.
Particle in a box. Complementary principle of Bohr. Schrodinger time independent and time
dependent wave equations. Wave function properties — Significance. Basic postulates of
quantum mechanics. Operators, Eigen functions and Eigen values, expectation values. Application
of Schrodinger wave equation to particle in one and three dimensional boxes, potential step and
28. Nuclear Physics: Basic properties of nucleus — size, charge, mass, spin, magnetic dipole
moment and electric quadrupole moment. Binding energy of nucleus, deuteron binding
energy, p-p and n-p scattering (concepts), nuclear forces. Nuclear models — liquid drop model,
shell model. Range of alpha particles, Geiger — Nuttal law. Gammow’s theory of alpha decay.
Geiger — Nuttal law from Gammow’s theory. Beta spectrum — neutrino hypothesis,
Fermi’s theory of 13 —decay.
29. Solid State Physics: Crystalline nature of matter. Crystal lattice, Unit Cell, Elements of
symmetry. Crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Miller indices. Simple crystal structures (S.C.,
BCC, CsCI, FCC, NaCI diamond and Zinc Blends)
Diffraction of X —rays by crystals, Bragg’s law, and Experimental techniques – Laue’s method
and powder method.