TS Ed.CET -2020
Part – C
PHYSICAL SCIENCE: CHEMISTRY ( 50 marks)
1. Atomic structure and elementary quantum mechanics
Black body radiation, Planck‗s radiation law, photoelectric effect, heat capacity of solids, Compton
effect, De Broglie‗s hypothesis. Heisenberg‗s uncertainty principle, Sinusoidal wave equation,
Hamiltonian operator, Schrodinger‗s wave equation, and its importance. Physical interpretation of the
wave function, significance of and 2
2. Chemical Bonding
Ionic solids- lattice and solvation energy, solubility of ionic solids, Fajan‘s rule, polarity and
polarizability of ions, covalent nature of ionic bond, covalent bond – Common hybridization and
shapes of molecules.
Molecular orbital theory: Shapes and sign convention of atomic orbitals. Modes of overlapping.
Concept of and bonds. Criteria for orbital overlap. LCAO concept. Types of molecular orbitalsbonding, antibonding and non bonding. MOED of homonuclear diatomics – ,
, (unhybridized diagrams only) and heteronuclear diatomics CO, NO, and HF.
Bond order, stability and magnetic properties.
3. s-block elements:
General Characteristics of groups I and II elements, Diagonal relationship between Li and Mg, Be and
4. p-block elements
Group–13: Synthesis and structure of diborane and higher Boranes (B4H10 and B5H9), Boron
nitrogen compounds (B3N3H6 and BN), Lewis acid nature of BX3
Group – 14: Carbides-Classification – ionic, covalent, interstitial – synthesis. Structures and reactivity.
Industrial application. Silicones – Preapartion – a) direct silicon process b) use of Grignard reagent c)
aromatic silylation. Classification – straight chain, cyclic and cross-linked.
Group – 15: Nitrides – Classification – ionic, covalent and interstitial. Reactivity –hydrolysis.
Preparation and reactions of hydrazine, hydroxyl amine, phosphazenes.
Oxides: Types of oxides (a) Normal- acidic, basic amphoteric and neutral (b) Mixed(c)sub oxide d)
peroxide e) superoxide. Structure of oxides of C, N, P, S and Cl – reactivity, thermal stability,
Oxy acids: Structure and acidic nature of oxy acids of B, C, N, P, S and Cl. Redox properties of oxy
acids of Nitrogen: HNO2 (reaction with FeSO4, KMnO4, K2Cr2O7), HNO3 (reaction with H2S, Cu),
HNO4 (reaction with KBr, Aniline), H2N2O2 (reaction with KMnO4). Redox properties of oxyacids of
Potasium: H3PO2 (reaction with HgCl2), H3PO3 (reaction with AgNO3, CuSO4).
Redox properties of oxyacids of Sulphur: H2SO3 (reaction with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7), H2SO4 (reaction
with Zn, Fe, Cu), H2S2O3 (reaction with Cu, Au), H2SO5 (reaction with KI, FeSO4), H2S2O8 (reaction
with FeSO4, KI)
Interhalogens- classification- general preparation- structures of AB, AB3, AB5 and AB7 type and
reactivity. Poly halides- definition and structure of and I3
Zero group elements: Comparison of Pseudohalogens with halogens. General preparation, structure,
bonding and reactivity of Xenon compounds – Oxides, Halides and Oxy-halides. Clatherate
compounds and Anomalous behavior of He (II)
Characteristics of d-block elements with special reference to electronic configuration variable valence,
ability to form complexes, magnetic properties & catalytic properties. Stability of various oxidation
states and SRP Comparative treatment of second and third transition series with their 3d analogues.
Study of Ti, Cr and Cu triads. Titanium triad – electronic configuration and reactivity of +3 and +4
states – oxides and halides. Chromium triad – reactivity of +3 and +6 states. Copper triad – reactivity
of +1, +2 and +3 states.
6. f-block elements
Chemistry of Lanthanides – electronic structure, position in periodic table, oxidation state, Atomic and
ionic radii, Lanthanide contraction – cause and consequences, anomalous behaviour of post
lanthanides, basicity, Complexation-type of donor ligands preferred, magnetic propertiesparamagnetism. Colour and spectra f-f transition. Occurrence and separation-ion exchange method,
Chemistry of Actinides-General features-electronic configuration, oxidation state, actinide contraction,
colour and complex formation. Comparison with lanthanides.
Valence bond theory, Explanation of metallic properties and its limitations, Free electron theory,
thermal and electrical conductivity of metals, limitations, Band theory, formation of bands,
explanation of conductors, semiconductors n-type and p-type, extrinsic & intrinsic semiconductors,
8. Co-ordination chemistry.
Nomenclature of inorganic molecules and complex compounds. Werner’s theory – postulates,
experimental evidences. Sidwick’s theory–calculation of EAN, limitations. Metal Ligand bondin in
transition metal complexes – Valence bond theory – postulates, geometries of coordination number 4 –
tetra hedral and square planer and 6 -octahedral. Limitations. Crystal field theory – features. Splitting
of d – orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, crystal field stabilization energy,
(elementary treatment diagrams only). Magnetic properties of Transition metal complexes. Types of
magnetic behavior spin only formula, calculation of magnetic moments. Electronic spectra of metal
complexes d-d transitions, spectro chemical series. Determination of composition of complexes, Job’s
method and mole ratio method. Stability constants, factors affecting stability of complexes. Isomerism
in co-ordination compounds – Structural ionization, hydrate, linkage, coordination, coordination
position and polymerization isomerism.Stereoisomerisms- geometrical and optical isomerism.
Hard and soft acids and bases Classification, Pearson’s concept of hardness and softness,
application of HSAB principles – stability of complexes, predicting the feasibility of a reaction.
9. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds
Molecular representations: Wedge, Fischer, Newman and saw-horse formulae.
Isomerism: Definition of homomers and isomers. Classification of isomers: Constitutional and
Stereoisomers – definition and examples. Constitutional isomers: chain, functional and positional
isomers and metamerism. Stereoisomers: enantiomers and diastereomers – definitions and examples.
Conformational and configurational isomerism- definition.
10. Structural Theory in Organic Chemistry
Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electronegativity – inductive effect. Application
of inductive effect, (a) Basicity of amines (b) Acidity of carboxylic acids (c) Stability of carbonim
ions. Resonance or Mesomeric effect, application to (a) acidity phenol, (b) acidity of carboxylic
acides. Hyper conjugation and it application to stability to stability of carbonium ions. Free radicals
Types of organic reactions: Addition electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical Substitution –
electrophilic, nuicleophilic and free radical. Elimination. Examples
11. Acyclic Hydrocarbons
Alkanes– Methods of preparation: Wurtz reaction, Kolbe‗s electrolysis, Corey-House reaction.
Chemical reactivity – inert nature, free radical substitution mechanism, Halogenation examplesreactivity, selectivity and orientation..
Alkenes- Preparation of alkenes (a) by dehydration of alcohols (b) dehydrohalogenation of alkyl
halides (c) by dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides(brief mechanism), Zaitsev‗s rule. Properties: Addition
of Hydrogen – heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes. Addition of halogen and its mechanism.
Addition of HX, Markonikov‗s rule, addition of H2O, HOX, H2SO4with mechanism and addition of
HBr in the presence of peroxide (anti – Markonikov‗s addition).
Oxidation – hydroxylation by KMnO4, OsO4, peracids (via epoxidation), hydroboration, ozonolysis –
location of double bond. Dienes – Types of dienes, reactions of conjugated dienes – 1,2 and 1,4
addition of HBr to 1,3 – butadiene and Diels – Alder reaction.
Alkynes– Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of dihalides, dehalogenation of tetrahalides Properties:
Acidity of acetylenic hydrogen (formation of metal acetylides). preparation of higher acetylenes,
Metal-ammonia reductions. physical properties. Chemical reactivity – electrophilic addition of X2,
HX, H2O (tautomerism), Oxidation (formation of enediol, 1,2 diones and carboxylic acids), reduction
and polymerization reaction of acetylene.
12. Benzene and its reactivity
Concept of aromaticity – aromaticity (definition) Huckl’s rule – application to Benzenoid (Benzene,
Napthalene, anthracene and Phenanthrace) and Non- Benzenoid compounds (cyclopropenyl cation,
cyclopentadienyl anion and tropylium cation).
Reactions General mechanism of electrophilic substitution mechanism of nitration and sulfonation.
Mechanism of halogenations, Friedel craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of aromatic
substitution – Definition ortho, para and meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating group
with examples (Electronic Interpretation of various groups like NO2 and Phenolic). Orientation: (i)
Amino methoxy and methyl groups, (ii) Carboxy, nitro, nitrile, carbonyl and sulfonic acid groups, (iii)
Halogens (Explanation by taking minimum of one example from each type)
13. Arenes and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Polynuclear hydrocarbons – Structure of naphthalene and anthracene (Molecular Orbital diagram and
resonance energy) Reactivity towards electrophilic substitution. Nitration and sulphonation as
14. Hydroxy compounds
Preparation: from carbonyl compounds. Aryl carbinols by hydroxyl methylation. Phenols – (a) by
diazotization (b) from sulfonic acid (c) from cumene. Physical properties Hydrogen bonding (inter
molecular and intramolecular) effect of hydrogen bonding on boiling point and water solubility
Chemical properties (a) Formation of alkoxides (b) replacement of OH with HX/ZnCl2.
Esterifification by (a) acid halides, anhydrides and acids (mechanism) (b) Esters of inorganic acids.
Oxidation of alcohols by PCC, KMnO4. Special reactions of phenols – (a) Bromination,(b)Kolbe –
Schmidt reaction (c) Riemer Tiemann (d) Azo coupling.
15. Carbonyl compounds
Nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds and isomerism. Synthesis of aldehydes
& ketones from acid chloride by using 1,3-dithianes, nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Base catalysed
reactions with particular emphasis on Aldol, Cannizaro reaction, Perkin reaction, Benzoin
condensation, haloform reaction, Knoevengeal condensation. Oxidation reactions –KMnO4 oxidation
and auto oxidation, reduction –catalytic hydrogenation, Clemmenson‗s reduction, Wolf-kishner
reduction, MPV reduction, reduction with LAH, NaBH4. Analysis – 2,4 –DNP test, Tollen‗s test,
Fehlings test, Scihff‗s test, haloform test (with equations).
Nitro hydro carbons: Nomenclature and classification – nitro hydrocarbons – structure. Tautomerism of
nitroalkanes leading to acid and keto form. Preparation on Nitroalkanes. Reacivity – halogenation,
reaction with HONO (“Nitrous acid), Nef reaction and Mannich reaction, Michael addition and
reduction. Aromatic Nitro hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, Preparation of Nitrobenzene by Nitration
(mechanism), from diazonium salts. Physical properties, chemical reactivity – orientation of
electrophilic substitution on nitrobenzene. Reduction reaction of Nitrobenzenes in different media.
Amines (AIiphatic and Aromatic): Nomenculature, classification into 1°, 2°, 3° Amines and
Quaternary ammonium compounds. preparative methods – 1. Ammonolysis of alkyl halides 2. Gabriel
synthesis 3. Hoffman’s bromamide reaction (mechamism). Reduction of Amides and Schmidt
reraction. Chemical Properties: (a) Alkylation (b) Acylation (c) Carbylamine reaction (d) Hinsberg
separation. Reaction with Nitrous acid of 1°, 2°, 3° (Aliphatic’and aromatic amines). Electophilic
substitutions of Aromatic amines – Bromination and Nitration, oxidation of aryl and 3° Amines,
diazotization. 6. Diazonium salts Preparation with mechanism. Synthetic importance – (a)
Replacement of diazonium group by- OH, X (Cl) Sandmeyer and Gatterman reaction, by fluorine
Schiemann’s reaction), by iodine, CN, NO2, H and aryl groups. Coupling Reraction of diazonium (i)
with phenols (ii) with anilines. Reduction to phenyl hydrazines.
17. Heterocyclic Compounds
Introduction and definition: Simple 5 membered ring compounds with one hetero atom Ex. Furan.
Thiophene and pyrrole. Importance of ring systems –presence in important natural products like
hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Numbering the ring systems as per Greek letter and Numbers. Aromatic
character –6-electron system (four-electrons from two double bonds and a pair of non-bonded
electrons from the hetero atom). Tendency to undergo substitution reactions.
Introduction: Classification and nomenclature –classification into mono, oligo and polysaccharides,
into pentoses, hexoses etc., into aldoses and ketoses.
Monosaccharides: All discussion to be confined to (+) glucose as an example of aldo hexoses and (-)
fructose as example of ketohexoses. Chemical properties and structural elucidation: Evidences for
straight chain pentahydroxy aldehyde structure (Acetylation, reduction to n-hexane, cyanohydrin
formation, reduction of Tollen‗s and Fehling‗s reagents and oxidation to gluconic and saccharic acids).
Number of optically active, isomers possible for the structure, configuration of glucose based on Dglyceraldehyde as primary standard (No proof for configuration is required). Evidence for cyclic
structure of glucose (some negative aldehyde tests and mutarotation).
Cyclic structure of glucose: Proposition of cyclic structure (Pyranose structure, anomeric Carbon and
anomers). Proof for the ring size (methylation, hydrolysis and oxidation reactions). Different ways of
writing pyranose structure (Haworth formula and chair conformational formula). Structure of fructose:
Evidence of 2 –ketohexose structure (formation of penta acetate, formation of cyanohydrin its
hydrolysis and reduction by HI to give 2-Carboxy-n-hexane Same osazone formation from glucose
and fructose, Hydrogen bonding in osazones, cyclic structure for fructose (Furanose structure,Haworth
Inter Conversion of Monosaccharides: Aldopentose to aldo hexose –eg: Arabinose to D-glucose, Dmannose (kiliani –Fischer method). Epimers, Epimerisation-Lobry debruyn van Ekenstein
rearrangement. Aldohexose –Aldopentose eg: D-glucose to D-arabinose by Ruff‗s degradation.
Aldohexose(+) (glucose) to ketohexose (–)(Fructose) and Ketohexose (Fructose) to aldohexose
19. Amino acids and proteins
Introduction: definition of amino acids, classification of amino acids alpha, beta and gama amino
acids. Natural and essential amino acids definition and examples, classification of alpha amino acids
into acidic, basic and neutral amino acids with examples. Methods of synthesis: General methods of
synthesis of alpha amino acids (specific examples –Glycine, Alanine, valine and Leucene) by
following methods: a) From halogenated Carboxylic acid b)Malonic ester synthesis c) strecker‗s
synthesis. Physical properties: Optical activity of naturally occurring amino acids: L –configuration,
irrespective of sign of rotation. Zwitter ion structure –salt like character, solubility, melting points,
amphoteric character, definition of isoelectric point. Chemical properties: General reactions due to
amino and carboxyl groups –Lactams from gamma and delta amino acids by heating peptide bond
(amide linkage). Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins, peptide synthesis.
20. Gaseous State
Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Vander Waals equation of state. Critical phenomenon.
PV-isotherms of real gases, continuity of state. Andrew‗s isotherms of CO2. The vander Waal‗s
equation and critical state. Derivation of relationship between critical constants and van der Waal‗s
constants. Experimental determination criteria constants. The law of corresponding states, reduced
equation of states. Joule Thomson effect and inversion temperature of a gas. Liquid action of gases: i)
Linde‗s method based on Joule Thomson effect ii) Claude‗s method based on adiabatic expansion of a
21. Liquid State
Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (qualitative description). Structural differences between
solids, liquids and gases. Liquid crystals, the mesomorphic state: Classification of liquid crystals into
Semectic and Nematic, differences between liquid crystal and solid / liquid. Application of liquid
crystals as LCD devices, lubricants and in digestion/ assimilation of food.
22. Solid state
Laws of Crystallography – (i) Law of Constancy of interfacial angles (ii) Law of Symmetry,
Symmetry elements in crystals (iii) Law of rationality of indices. Definition of space lattice, unit cell.
Bravais Lattices and Seven Crystal systems structure of NaCl (Bragg‗s method and Powder method).
Defects in crystals. Stoichiometric and non stoichiometric defects. Band theory of semiconductors:
Extrinsic and intrinsic semi conductors, n-type and p-type and their applications in photo electro
23. Dilute Solutions & Colligative Properties
Dilute Solutions, Colligative Properties, ideal and non ideal solution. Raoult‗s law, relative lowering
of vapour pressure, molecular weight determination. Osmosis – laws of osmotic pressure, its
measurement, determination of molecular weight from osmotic pressure. Elevation of boiling point
and depression of freezing point. Derivation of relation between molecular weight and elevation in
boiling point and depression in freezing point. Experimental methods for determining various
colligative properties. Abnormal molar mass, Van‗thoff factor, degree of dissociation and assocoation
24. Colloids& surface chemistry
Definition of colloids. Classification of colloids. Solids in liquids (sols): preparations and properties –
Kinetic, Optical and Electrical: stability of colloids Protective action. Hardy–Schultz law, Gold
number. Liquids in liquids (emulsions): Types of emulsions, preparation and emusifier. Liquids in
solids(gels); Classification, preparations and properties, inhibition, General applications of colloids.
Liquid – liquid mixtures, ideal liquid mixtures, Raoult‗s and Henry‗s laws. Non ideal systems.
Axeotropes HCl-H2O and C2H5OH – H2O systems. Fractional distillation,. Partially miscible liquidsPhenol – Water, Trimethyl amine – Water and Nicotine –Water systems. Lower upper consolute
temperatures. Effect of impurity on consolute temperature. Immiscible liquids and steam distillation.
26. Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, Factors influencing the rate of a reaction -concentration, temperature, pressure,
solvent, light and catalyst. Concentration dependence of rates, mathematical charecteristics of simple
chemical reactions- Zero order, first order, second order, pseudo first order, half life and mean life.
Determination of order of a reaction- differential method, method of integration, half life method and
isolation method. Radioactive decay as first order phenomenon. Arrhenius equation and concept of
activation energy. Theories of chemical kinetics: effect of temperature on rate of reaction. Simple
collision theory based on hard sphere model.
Definition of Thermodynamic terms: System, surroundings. types of systems, and intensive and
extensive properties. State and path functions and their differentials. Thermodynamic process. Concept
of heat and work.
First law of Thermodynamics: Statement, definition of internal energy and enthalphy. Heat capacity,
heat capacities at constant volume and pressure and their relationship. Joule’s law – Joule. Thomson
coefficient and inversion temperature. Calculation of w,q, dU and dH for the expansion of ideal gases
under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process. Temperature dependence of enthalpy
– Kirchoffs equation. Second law of thermodynamic need for the law, different statements of the law.
Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Carnot Theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Concept of
entropy, entropy as a state function, entropy as a function of V and T, entropy is a function of P & T
entropy change in physical processes. Gibbs and Helmholtz functions(G) and Helmholtz functions(A)
as thermodynamic quantities. A&G as a criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their
advantage over entropy change. Variation of G with P, V and T.
28. Electrochemistry & EMF
Electrical transport – conduction in metals and in electrolyte solutions, specific conductance and
equivalent conductance, measurement of equivalent conductance, variation of specific and equivalent
conductance with dilution. Migration of ions and Kholrausch‗s law, Arrhenius theory of electrolyte
dissociation and its limitations, weak and strong electrolytes, Ostwald‗s dilution law, its uses and
limitations. Debye-Huckel-Onsagar‗s equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only).
Transport number, definition and determination by Hittorf‗s method for attackable electrodes.
Applications of conductivity measurements: Determination f degree of dissociation, determination of
Ka of acids, determination of solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, conductometric titrations.
Electrolyte and Galvanic cells – reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of
electrochemical cells. EMF of a cell and its measurement. Computation of EMF. Types of reversible
electrodes- the gas electrode, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt and redox electrodes. Electrode
reactions, Nernst equation, cell EMF and single electrode potential, standard Hydrogen electrode –
reference electrodes (calamel electrode) – standard electrode potential, sign conventions,
electrochemical series and its significance. Applications of EMF measurements, Calculation of
thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (G, H and K). Determination of pH using hydrogen
electrode, glass electrode and quinhydrone electrode, Solubility product of AgCl. Potentiometric
Introduction to photochemical reactions, Difference between thermal and photochemical reactions,
Laws of photo chemistry-Grotthus -Draper law, Stark –Einstein‗s Law of photo chemical equivalence.
Quantum yield. Examples of photo chemical reactions with different quantum yields. Photo chemical
combinations of H2–Cl2and H2–Br2reactions, reasons for the high and low quantum yield. Problems
based on quantum efficiency, Consequences of light absorptions. Singlet and triplet states. Jablonski
diagram Explanation of internal conversion, inter-system crossing, Phosphorescence, fluorescence.
30. Molecular spectroscopy
Introduction to electromagnetic radiation, interaction of electromagnetic rations with molecules,
various types of molecular spectra.
Rotational spectroscopy (Microwave spectroscopy)
Rotational axis, moment of inertia, classification of molecules (based on moment of inertia), rotational
energies, selection rules, determination of bond length of rigid diatomic molecules eg. HCl.
Infra red spectroscopy
Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, molecular vibration spectrum, selection rules.
Determination of force constant. Qualitative relation of force constant to bond energies. Anharmonic
motion of real molecules and energy levels. Modes of vibrations in polyatomic molecules.
Characteristic absorption bands of various functional groups. Finger print nature of infrared spectrum.
Bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals,electronic energy levels of molecules (σ, π, n),types of
electronic transitions:σ-σ*, n-σ*, n-л*, л-л* with suitable examples. Selection rules, Terminology of
chromophore, auxochrome, bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts. Absorption of characteristics of
chromophones: diene, enone and aromatic chromophores. Representation of UV-visible spectra.
TS Ed.CET -2020