BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES: BOTANY (Marks: 50)
A) Microbial Diversity of Lower Plants
1. General characters of Cyanobacteria Cell structure, thallus organization and their significance
as biofertilizers with special reference to Oscillatoria, Nostoc and Anabaena
2. Lichens: Structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance.
3. Viruses: Structure, replication and transmission; plant diseases caused by viruses and their
control with reference to Tobacco Mosaic and Rice Tungro.
4. Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance. An outline of Bacterial
blight of Rice.
5. General account of Mycoplasma with reference to Little leaf of brinjal and Papaya leaf curl
6. General characters, structure, reproduction and classification of algae (Fritsch).
7. Structure and reproduction of Volvox, Oedogonium, Chara, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia.
8. Economic importance of algae in Agriculture and Industry.
9. General characters and classification of fungi (Ainsworth).
10. Structure and reproduction of Albugo, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Penicillium and Puccinia
11. General account of mushroom cultivation.
B) Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
1. Structure, reproduction, life cycle and systematic position of Marchantia, Anthoceros
2. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.
3. Structure, reproduction, life cycle and systematic position of Rhynia, Lycopodium,
Equisetum and Marsilea.
4. Stelar evolution, heterospory and seed habit in Pteridophytes.
5. Distribution and economic importance of Gymnosperms.
6. Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts, systematic position and life cycle of
Pinus and Gnetum.
7. Introduction to Fossils and fossilization ; Importance of fossils.
8. Geological time scale.
9. A General account on Bennettitales:.
C) Taxonomy of Angiosperms and Medicinal Botany
1. Salient features of Bentham & Hooker‘s and Engler & Prantle‘s classification.
2. Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to ICBN, Vienna code – a brief
account. Concept of Herbarium.
3. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families:
Polypetalae : Annonaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae (Faboideae/papilionoideae,
Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae), Cucurbitaceae
Gamopetalae: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae
Monochalmydeae: Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Monocotyledons: Orchidaceae and
4. Distinction of Ethnomedicine from Folklore medicine.
5. Outlines of Ayurveda, Sidda, Unani and Homeopathic systems of traditional medicine. Role of
AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI.
6. Plants in primary health care: Common medicinal plants –Tinospora cordifolia, Ocimum
sanctum, Piper longum, Terminalia chebula, Aloe vera, Curcuma longa.
7. Study of selected plant examples used in traditional medicine as resource of active principles in
modern medicine: Structure, usage and pharmacological action of Aswagandha (Withania
somnifera), Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia serpentina), Nela usiri (Phyllanthus amarus), Amla
(Phyllanthus emblica) and Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri).
D) Plant Anatomy & Embryology
1. Meristems: Types, histological organization of shoot and root apices and theories.
2. Tissues and Tissue Systems: Simple, complex and special tissues.
3. Leaf: Ontogeny, diversity of internal structure; stomata and epidermal outgrowths.
4. Stem and root anatomy: Vascular cambium – Formation and function.
5. Anomalous secondary growth of Stem – Achyranthes, Boerhaavia, Dracaena
6. Wood structure: General account. Study of local timbers – Teak (Tectona grandis),
and Neem (Azadirachta indica).
7. Another structure, Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.
8. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis; types and development of female gametophyte.
9. Pollination – Types; Pollen – pistil interaction. Fertilization.
10. Endosperm – Development and types. Embryo – development and types
E) Cell Biology and Genetics
2. Plant cell envelops: Ultra structure of cell wall, molecular organization of cell membranes.
3. Nucleus: Ultra structure, Nucleic acids – Structure of DNA, types and functions of RNA.
4. Chromosomes: Morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome, Euchromatin and
5. Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial DNA and Plastid DNA, Plasmids.
6. Cell division: Cell and its regulation; mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
8. Linkage: A brief account and theories of Linkage. Crossing over: Mechanism and theories of
9. Gene Organization: Structure of gene & genetic code.
10. Mechanism of transcription in Prokaryotes.
F) Plant Physiology
1. Plant-Water Relations Osmotic and pressure potentials; absorption, transport of water,
Ascent of sap; Transpiration; Stomatal structure and movements
2. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role; symptoms of
3. Mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, factors regulating enzyme activity.
4. Photosynthetic pigments, Red drop and Emerson Enhancement effect; Mechanism of
photosynthetic electron Transport, Photophosphorylation, C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
5. Biological nitrogen fixation.
6. Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic; Glycolysis & Krebs cycle.
7. Physiological effects of phytohormones–Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene and
8. Physiology of flowering and Photoperiodism.
9. Stress physiology: Concept of water, salt and temperature stresses and plant responses.